version 1 with brackets

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Synonyms: terminotrash / glossary sprawl / word cluttering / word wise nosing / archi-nerdism / word masturbation:
The process of making up words for the sake of it (invented by architects that were about to lose a game of scrabble and tried to fudge their way out – see archi-scrabblers). Augmented by architect-writers as a (pretty) useless exercise to create an even bigger distance between architects / architecture and its final users, representing the wannabe up-scaling of intellectuality and the show off of creativity in a way that is mostly obscuring the lack of actual quality design and clear cut plans and sometimes even compromises and prohibits the production of authentic content. ~ REM_D


Author: Adrian Hornsby

[#-shaped high rise residential]

typical residential tower with #-shaped floorplan.

[ adhocracy]

noun. An organization with little or no structure; the opposite of a bureaucracy.


noun. Advertisements painted on the walls of buildings.


A city in which the layout, infrastructure, and economy are centered around a major airport.


(Sorkin), hermetically sealed from its actual locality, often inaccessible to its immediate vicinity, and yet connected to a vast network of “non-places” (Auge)


Synonyms: terminotrash / glossary sprawl / word cluttering / word wise nosing / archi-nerdism / word masturbation:

The process of making up words for the sake of it (invented by architects that were about to lose a game of scrabble and tried to fudge their way out – see archi-scrabblers). Augmented by architect-writers as a (pretty) useless exercise to create an even bigger distance between architects / architecture and its final users, representing the wannabe up-scaling of intellectuality and the show off of creativity in a way that is mostly obscuring the lack of actual quality design and clear cut plans and sometimes even compromises and prohibits the production of authentic content. ~ REM_D

[Artificial City]

City that requires excessive amounts of resources to maintain its appearance

[BAU; Business as Usual]

A scenario based on an extrapolation of current trends.
In China this is a harsh mixture of long-term top-down planning (such as stepping stone projects) and small irregular bottom-up insitu developments.



noun. A large-scale model of something

[big-box store]

n. A large-format store, typically one that has a plain, box-like exterior and at least 100,000 square feet of retail space.
—big-boxing pp.

[big hair house]

n. A house that has a garish style and that is overly large compared to its lot size and to the surrounding houses.

[black hole]

a. An area of space-time with a gravitational field so intense that its escape velocity is equal to or exceeds the speed of light.
b. A great void; an abyss.
c. Center of urban gravity; saturated and stagnant zone that triggers urbanization but doesn’t participate in it; often coincides with the historic center.


n. A suburb undergoing rapid population growth.

Boomburbs are defined as places with more than 100,000 residents that are not the largest city in their metropolitan areas and have maintained double-digit rates of population growth in recent decades. The United States currently contains 53 boomburbs: four top 300,000 in population, eight surpass 200,000, and 41 exceed 100,000 people. This Census Note follows these important but seldom recognized places, which accounted for over half (51 percent) of 1990s' growth in cities with between 100,000 and 400,000 residents. Boomburbs now contain a quarter of all people who live in such places.
—Robert E. Lang and Patrick A. Simmons, "'Boomburbs': The Emergence of Large, Fast-Growing Suburban Cities in the United States," Fannie Mae Foundation, June, 2001


n. The brand landscape; the expanse of brands and brand-related items (logos, ads, and so on) within a culture or market.

[Butterfly-shaped high rise]

typical residential tower with butterfly-shaped floorplan.

[Chinese Modernism]

Or Pragmatic Modernism:
a. Mass modernization cut free from the modernist ideology.
b. Chinese version of the Modernist urban dream resulting in a landscape of cross-tower and mega-slab residential projects, but developed as a result of market forces and the pursuit of xiao kang society.
Chinese modernism includes the anti-urban movement sweeping newfound wealth and the [green illusion] of greater space offered by large-scale suburban residential projects.

[Chinese Moderni$m]

a. An architectural style that stresses both its modern character as well as – often through the addition of opulent ornaments - the affluence or status of its owner.

b. will add the definition of C M we came up with for urban planning.

[Chinese Sprawl]

Concealed sprawl of intense urban conglomeration in diffuse and undeveloped surroundings.


Club in club system

[commodified leisure]

noun. Leisure activities that require the purchase of goods or services.
—adj. Of or relating to such an activity.

[Consumers' Republic]

an economy, culture, and politics built around the promises of mass consumption, both in terms of material life and the more idealistic goals of freedom, democracy, and equality.

[cookie model]

see also [raisin bread model], [pancake model], [doughnut model]

Stemming from the analogy created by the [pancake model] of urban development, the cookie model represents the move of the city from a monocentric organization to a polycentric one, whereby development is pushed to satellite cities and sub-centers, each with their own gravitational pull and outward expansion. This is likely to increase the [sprawl constant], particularly when relative distance is limited.

[Culture of the now]

The sense that society is a completely open playing field, a tabula rasa on which a new way of life can be constructed that breaks radically the past. Its motto could be described as: ‘We don’t need history here. We are creating it.’


Have! See chapter with AH!

[Demolition urbanism]

This is a style of re-development based on the destruction and demolition of the memory of the past


[doughnut pattern]

n. Urban development pattern in which businesses and affluent residents migrate to surrounding suburbs and edge cities, resulting in a "hollowed out" downtown core consisting of mostly poorer residents.

[Dynamic Density]

a. The city possesses a critical mass. Its density changes in relation to its footprint, or the built- area. Dynamic Density describes this process of expansion and contraction and prescribes an optimal proportion for the course of the development of the city.
b. Ideal quality of a city that offers a rich and diverse experience when navigating through it. Its goals are:
1. compact yet comfortable
2. integrated yet flexible

[ego wall]

n. A wall on which a person has hung their degrees, certificates, and awards, as well as photographs in which they appear with famous people.

[Euro getto]


Anno 2005 the prevailing decorative motive in China is neo-classical. Eurostyle is the unassuming mixture of Greek, Roman, Gothic and Rococo architectural ornaments.


Low density urbanization; the furthest range of influence of a city, less developed but still strongly linked to the city because of relationships to the core metropolis by its inhabitants, such as migrant workers, farmers, etc.

[fact-free science]

n. A scientific endeavor—such as a computer simulation of a biological process—that does not take into account real-world constraints such as chemical or biological data.

[field of influence]

Makes reference to the [urban gravity] of a city, beyond which urbanization can no longer be related to the core urban body.

[Floating population]

The term ‘floating population’ in China refers to people who have not in fact migrated, but who ‘float and move’ meaning that they are not, and generally will not become, a permanently settled group

[Floating urbanism]

This is the kind of “urbanism” that is more or less proper to a floating population. It is through this variety of forms of floating urbanism that control society captures nomads on the move and accommodates them for its own purposes

[Floating urbanism 1(FU1)]

An informal financing market and shadowy channel of local lending networks.through which capital flows is a first floating space for stimulating the movement of people and of capital as well as for controlling that movement. In this space of control, migrants float between their place of origin and their destination cities and towns

[Floating urbanism 2(FU2)]

Local lending networks of private financing creates a second form and trend of floating urbanism. This network turns certain rural or quasi urban areas into hubs of industry

[Floating urbanism 3(FU3)]

China’s farmer-entrepreneurs were thrown into the reform era’s hyper-competition, in which hundreds of thousands of local competitors chased the same business. This intense competition created its own culture, forcing diligence and efficiencies that were rare under collective agriculture

[Floating urbanism 4(FU4)]

Landscapes that seem neither urban nor rural are nevertheless brand-centers for their respective industries. One stretch of country road runs through a row of factories all devoted to making downspouts for home sinks, another to making industrial valves, and still another to clamps and fasteners. To these factories come the world’s volume buyers looking for voluminous discounts

[Floating urbanism 5 (FU5)]

Floating Brand urbanism function as magnet for migrants.

[floating village]

Migrating village of barracks-style architecture moving from one construction site to the next, offering accommodation at up to 300.000 people per square kilometer.

[Fluid control urbanism]

The space of control is a product of a line of flight that escapes disciplinary entrenchment, but it has its own problems, turning the freedom of movement into a new form of sedentariness and immobility. The control society and its formless city do not consist of an undifferentiated fluidity. Control involves a moment of re-differentiatiation in terms of informational or cultural identities, which functions as an impetus for identification. This differential moment is followed by the management of differences through circuits of movement and mixture that replace the disciplinary enclosures of discipline society.

[Flyover country]

n. Pejorative nickname for middle America, most often used by people on the east or west coast. Also: fly-over country.

[Fortress urbanism]

The city itself is assuming the status of an object “beyond control”. The production of security is fast becoming the key factor that is transforming the city. The contemporary city prescribes security as a life style, the “urban” turns into a “jungle”. The “urban jungle” is a zone in which the figure of the citizen meets the evictee in a struggle for survival.

[Gated commodity housing enclaves]

Today China has embarked on a pattern of urban organization that recognizes a correlation between status and housing consumption patterns, and residential segregation In the post-reform era, the ‘gate’ has been rediscovered, forming the ‘gated community’ more similar to those in the developed western economies (new commodity housing enclaves in the form of ‘gated communities’).

[Gated communities]

Refer to particularistic orders (e.g. cultural, ethnic or class-based), where risks are sought to be minimized in secured zones of discipline, while outside, in the “urban jungle”, insecurity prevails


n. A person who lives in a gated community.

[Ghost buildings]

The bust that followed Shanghai’s last real estate bubble in the 90s left hundred of high rises around the city unfinished.
[Golden Ghetto]

[I society]

noun. A society in which people emphasize independence and individuality.


n. A postindustrial metropolitan area dominated by knowledge-based industries and institutions, such as universities and research hospitals.


The seemingly paradoxical phenomenon of the mass deployment of a highly mobile workforce willing to live far removed from home and family; in reality, such migrant workers are confined to the crammed conditions of their workplace or lodged in barracks, tents and basements, rendering day to day mobility effectively nil.

[Imperial overstretch]

n. The extension of an empire beyond its ability to maintain or expand its military and economic commitments.


a. Excessive of infrastructure creating disruptions of spatial patterns and causing inaccessibility
b. Infrastructure (road and highway network) that consumes more space than it can serve or generates more traffic than it can process
Comparable to the height of an office tower, the size of a city is finite. After a certain building height, to accommodate the top floors with elevators, space will be sacrificed at the bottom. Infrasprawl suggest a similar optimum applies to the footprint of the city and its road network.

[Instant City]

Cities built almost overnight, without history or previous context.

[Lines of flight]

A vector of escape from a control space


The successful isolation of the different social strata of the entire urban community.
on fenced off vacuum-packed residential bubbles...
Urban privatization offensive: evacuate and cauterize

The urban tissue of a very localised area is sucked out and the
surrounding edges cauterised or seared. This ensures the area to be
worked on is not bled into by surrounding tissue. The implant is then
inserted into the evacuated lot. This community, like a silicone implant,
sits within the urban body and yet its composition remains alien.
{not sure about the mastectomy analogy / also privatization of massive communal land idea should be introduced}

[luxury villa areas]

= bieshu qu


n. An economic system that combines aspects of both capitalism and communism.


n. 1. A new computer architecture that is being marketed aggressively despite the fact that it doesn't yet exist as a finished product. 2. The design and structure of a market or a marketing campaign. Also: marchitecture.

[mass customization]

noun. Tailoring a product or service to suit each customer.

[Metropolitan gravity]

see Urban Gravity


adj. Relating to an area that has an urban center surrounded by one or more counties or regions, and that has a population between 10,000 and 50,000; comparable to a small city.


small autonomous regions

[Micro Urban governance]

community level governance

[Mission from God]

noun. A crucially important task that must not fail; often used ironically.


Market-driven Organic Development describes an urbanization characterized by organic growth patterns as a result of an accumulation of designed and orchestrated planning.


a. Spatially or socially uniform area that encourages social segregation
b. An urban extension that is not necessarily inefficient, dispersed or suburban, but should be regarded as sprawl because of its mono-functional nature.


n. An upscale and largely self-contained suburb or town with a large population of high-tech workers employed in nearby office parks that are dominated by high-tech industries; any large collection of nerds. Also: Nerdistan.

[formless space]

Networked forms for the promotion of mobility and the organization of mobile subjects in formless space. In this space of control, inclusion and exclusion take place through continuous, mobile forms of control as is the case of “networks”, and of the city without walls. Whereas discipline worked as an “instrument of immobilization”, networked forms of control promote mobility and target the conduct of mobile subjects. These networks engage in anticipatory risk management.

[Nomadic nation]

The case of China’s farmers turned migrant workers who wander the country without the official permissions they need, or who have no permanent addresses suggest that, in this new social topology one no longer moves from one closed site to another (as it was the case above in the era of disciplinary enclosure) but is increasingly subjected to free-floating, nomadic forms of movement and of control. Perhaps these new nomads are construction workers who live in their job sites, shifting floors as work progresses, and moving on when work is done. The transient 100 or 200 or 300 million souls who now make up China’s floating population of nomads are all people who legally ought to be one place but are not, who ought to have one sort of job but have another, and who are in effect a nomadic nation that is potentially the most disruptive group in China, and the country’s least easily controlled


Nomadism is then the line of flight that crosses and escapes the walled city. Nomadism and large migration emerge in China as critical tools against disciplinary enclosure, as “lines of flight” out of disciplinary space.

[pancake model]

from the Chinese tan da bing, whereby the urban model of the city is described as a flattened pancake, representing a monocentric mass, with continuous, circular expansion outwards, a congested center and extensive travel times to and from the center; common analogy for describing the current urban shape of Beijing.


noun. An analyst or academic who believes that China poses no military threat, particularly to the United States (usu. derogatory).


Bentham’s Panopticon Writings (1988) and Foucault’s Discipline and Punish (1977) describe the production of life stripped of form and value (dependent labour) placing a spatial emphasis. The panopticon was invented as a universally applicable diagram of surveillance to be used in all institutions, e.g. schools, hospitals and workhouses as well as in prisons


An example, a single phenomenon, a singularity, which can be repeated and thus acquires the capability of tacitly modelling the behaviour and the practice in this case, of urbanists and planners. It is a concrete, singular, historical phenomenon, but at the same time it is a model of functioning which can be generalized

[paradigms of spatial order]

a. The paradigm of immobility: In the mid-1950s, China turned from individual land use to Stalin’s Soviet model of collectivization (Soviet-style ‘iron rice bowl’ community). The most extreme of the communes moved people out of their homes into big dormitories where families could be separated. China’s rural labor was kept to the land where it could play the part of a reserve army to be called into action when needed by the party for industrialization projects. The era of collectivization was also an era of disciplinary spatial confinement for China’s rural population

b. The paradigm of disciplinary enclosure: While foreigners created Shanghai as a world port, the city then became a magnet for Chinese looking to work in factories. This large migration to Shanghai, and the foreigners fears that their city would be engulfed, helped lead to the system that divided the city into separate zones, gated sections of town for the colonialists, known as concessions, and the rest for Chinese.

c. The paradigm of control: The new society of control (e.g., post-Mao reformers under the lead of Deng Xiaoping) constitutes a new social topology, in which the geographical/institutional delimitation of discipline, that is, the binary logic of the inside/outside distinction has become obsolete. The city transgresses its limits, its inside/outside divide, and becomes a formless city. At this point space and the city start to be organized according to the principles of “control”.

d. The paradigm of fear and terror: The paradigmatic mode of Chinese urban development that combines official communist-style rule by fiat and market economic opportunism, has a major problem: it is demolishing districts in its rush skywards, displacing 2,5 million citizens in the process since 1990. The economic freedoms of the middle classes are feeding a culture of isolated individualism. The combination of demolition and eviction generates fear and suicide as the only line of flight and escape from the smooth space of control.

[Paradigm urbanism]

A territorial space and a city that are more or less organized to function as magnets for migrants and for capturing a floating population in a mobile space of control, becomes an example, a paradigm that is repeated everywhere in China


adj. Relating to the residential area or community beyond a city's suburbs.
—penturbanite n.
—penturb n.
—penturbia n.
—penturbian adj.

[perceived density]:

a. intrusion of tall structures in a tight-knit framework, giving the illusion of a densely populated area. See also [up-scaling].
b. the subjective sensation of the incredible density of a city that belies the actual calculated density; especially true of Beijing low-rise urban structures.


transition zone between center and suburb; in the case of Beijing, a fluctuating area relatively between the Fourth and Fifth Ring Roads.


noun. A politician who supports initiatives and policies that harm the environment


noun. A walled-in or gated community of private homes, especially one in which a homeowner association establishes and enforces rules related to property appearance and resident behavior.

[proletarian drift]

n. The tendency for originally upscale products to eventually become popular with the working class; the tendency for most elements of the culture to eventually appeal to the lowest common denominator.

[PUC ]

- People's Urbanity of China: 96%

[Raisin Bread model]

Spatial model illustrating the increasing distance of all urban elements in relation to each other.

[real estate refugees]

n. People who move out of the city and into the surrounding suburbs and towns so they can purchase a larger home on a bigger lot.

[Reality Check]

Projection for BAU in 2020

[reverse commuter]

noun. A person who travels against the normal flow of rush hour traffic, such as from their home in the city to their job in the suburbs.

[ring city]

see also [peri-centric city] , [peri-center]

a. The formation of
b. proposal for an urban organization of the city of Beijing whereby currently developing urban patches staggered around the centre agglomerate to form the basis of a huge urban ring roughly 100km in circumference,

[ring model]

loose term describing the urban infrastructure of Beijing based upon a series of circular highways surrounding the city center.

[rural rebound]

n. The recent and significant population increases in rural and exurban areas following years of declining or stagnant population growth.


adj. Combining aspects of both rural and urban or suburban life.
—rurbanite n.
—rurbanism n.

[Sear and seal]

life in the vacuum-packed community

Within the new China everything is individually packaged. The streets are
swept by flows of discarded plastic. Development sites within the
city are enclosed by corrugated sheet walls. The old hutongs are sucked
out and the space is sealed off for the new urban community: self-
contained, self-policed and serviced, wrapped up and vacuum packed like a
new snack.


A magic that other cities are trying to replicate. City leaders everywhere want to remake cities in order to reinvent themselves as players in the market economy. Cities like Nanjing, Beijing, and Guangdong and hundreds of other Chinese cities on the make, are trying to do nearly anything to replicate some of Shanghai’s magic.

[Shanghai Fever]

The massive inflow of investment, the meteoric rise in the number of skyscrapers, and the resultant property speculation in Shanghai, are collectively known as “Shanghai fever.” The construction explosion that grew out of the Reform Era has not, of course, occurred just in Shanghai. The amount of construction in China as a whole during the past 20 years exceeds the country’s combined total over the preceding few centuries. However, no city in the country has witnessed a greater change in its urban landscape than has Shanghai. Inspired by Shanghai fever, cities such as Suzhou, Kunshan, Hangzhou, and Ningbo all set ambitious goals for economic growth.

[Shenzhen 2.0, Chengdu 1.5, Suining 0.7, etc.]

Chinese cities are like software packages: they are continuously being updated to keep up with the ever increasing processor speed of the economy and the ever increasing expectations of its citizens. Like software that is being rushed to the market, glitches and security risks only come forward after it has been widely distributed and installed, thus increasing the demand for patches and updates even further. Unfortunately, newer versions are not always backwards compatible with earlier distributions. See also: Update strategy
{Not sure if the city itself is the software. Seems more obvious to make the projected image of the city / the ideology of the city the software and the city the hardware. Fits your title – like economy as processor speed, not actual processor. [cool analogy] }

[shift and shaft]

v. To shift programs to a lower level of government without providing the means with which to pay for those programs.
—shift and shaft n.
—shift-and-shaft adj.

[single-brand store]

see also [single-brand identity store]

noun. A store that sells only a single brand of merchandise.

[space invader]

noun. Someone who violates the personal space of other people by standing too close during conversations, touching legs or arms when seated beside a person, and so on.

[Spare Space]

design strategy that anticipates extensive future expansions.
Enforced density and building on the site boundary to increase efficiency and respond to future needs.

[Spatial prototypes]

a. The prototype of the camp: An exceptional, excluded space entrenched and surrounded with secrecy for the production of life stripped of form and value and dependent labour. In addition, to collectivization and the commune, Camps like structures in the People's Republic of China are also called Laogai, which means "reform through labor".

b. The prototype of the walled city: A system that divided the city into separate zones, gated sections of town for the colonialists, known as concessions, and the rest for Chinese. This is the city founded on the divide between its “intramural” population and the outside. The territory and the city are imagined as a disciplinary space entrenched by “walls”, originating in the act of inclusion/exclusion. Entrenchment establishes a clean-cut distinction between insiders and outsiders, between the subjects and the outlaws. The “outside” is distinct from the city, but it becomes so primarily through a sovereign act dividing the urban from the non-urban. This city is a diagram of discipline. Such disciplinary enclosure is an “anti-nomadic technique” that endeavours to “fix” mobilities

c. The prototype of the formless city: A city that is not characterized by an inside/outside distinction but by a multiplicity of cross-border flows in every direction for the production of mobility. This city is no longer founded on the divide between its “intramural” population and the outside; it no longer has anything to do with the classical oppositions of city/country nor centre/periphery. The city of control is a reticular ou-topia, sharing with all other networks a fibrous, thread-like capillary character that is not easily captured by the notions of levels, layers, territories, spheres, categories, structure, systems. Contrary to the disciplinary enclosures of the walled city, this city is a technological artefact for the promotion and management of nomadism and mobilities.

d. The prototype of the city as jungle: This city emerges out of the limitations of the society of control and its formless city. In here, the city assumes the status of an object “beyond control.” It becomes a zone in which the figure of the engineered middle class meets the evictee in a struggle for survival. In the emerging “urban jungle” the law is privatized, chaos is the rule, and city dwellers are forced into underground caves in search of safety. In the city as jungle you are made to disappear.


is a discontiguous expansion beyond the field of [urban gravity] as a result of accelerated (sub-) urbanization.

[Split City ]

A city consisting of a distinctly old and distinctly new part.


v. sprawled, sprawl•ing, sprawls
v. intr. To spread out in a straggling or disordered fashion.
n. Haphazard growth or extension outward, especially that resulting from real estate development on the outskirts of a city: urban sprawl.
urban sprawl
n. The unplanned, uncontrolled spreading of urban development into areas adjoining the edge of a city.

Note: Definitions and measures of sprawl are heavily debated, but broadly accepted meanings concentrate upon the fringe development of rapidly expanding urban areas characterized by a declining of the (aggregate) urban density, as evidenced by:
a. decline in population density of built-up areas
b. decline in floor area in built-up areas
c. changes in quality, performance, etc.

[sprawl constant]

a variable that defines the surface area of the transitional between rural and urban zone. Its is linked to the mass, speed, radius and field of influence of a city.


Index for sprawl based on traffic assessment of new building projects considering the travel time to the CBD; urban density tends to drop with falling transportation costs and rising incomes.

[Sprinkler City]

n. A fast-growing outer suburb or exurb.

[Stealth wealth]

noun. A form of wealth in which a person's lifestyle and purchasing patterns do not reflect (or appear not to reflect) their socioeconomic status.

[Stretch marks]

coarse urban areas rendered completely useless. Aggravated form of [coarseness].

[tabula rasa]

... urban areas still to be demolished.


n. A Chinese astronaut.


noun. The number of telephones per 100 people in a region.


A society with strong ideologies built far from existing areas.

[The Chinese Dream]

China’s new unofficial ideology of a wealthy {– well-off –}middle class life in a modern city. Comes in three versions: The lite-edition for farmers and migrants, the family size-edition for most college graduates and the Supersize XXL edition, that promises Tycoon-style living for the very rich.{ Maybe this is part of the update strategy!? The definition of the C D will have to fit all chapters…any suggestions?}

[The Cappuccino-generation]

See also the Gucci-generation, or the I-want-generation .
Chinese born after the turmoil of the cultural revolution had cleared, coming of age in an era of continuous economic growth. Members are strongly orientated towards international pop culture, like to set and work towards their self defined - usual material – goals and like to indulge in symbolic action that shows they are truly modern: e.g. buying cappuccino’s, wearing international brand name clothes. { I feel these are really cool and should be defined separately. This will the stratification of the society. Couples saving up for a coffee are not the same as those buying Gucci shoes (even if they can be in two years time). Maybe we can come up with five or so. The I-want could be the overarching one! Love that… something describing spoiled single child also very interesting. }

[The function of gating]

Under socialism, gating reinforces political control and collective consumption organised by the state; in the post-reform era, the gate demarcates emerging consumer clubs in response to the retreat of the state from the provision of public goods. In the Chinese city, urban fragmentation is paving the way to a new urban experience of insecurity and fear, which has begun to appear in the discourse of 'community building' in urban China. The scene of demolition and eviction serves here as the spatial prototype of this paradigm of fear

[The Household Responsibility System]

The system-instituted in 1980-, allowed Chinese peasant families to grow and sell crops for profit, provided they met their quota responsibilities to the state.

[The Hukou system]

{add Chang’s terms / definitions..}
A household registration system designed to prevent rural-to-urban migration and to divide rural from urban space. It is a tool for the creation of immobility and the apartheid-like camp

[The landscape of mass consumption]

xxxx see also consumerbation

[The scene of demolition]

An area that is cordoned off by tape, the kind you get at a crime scene or a danger zone. What is cordoned off may be a house or a restaurant standing amid the rubble; the building has been trashed in a totally demolished area. This is the scene of the expropriated and of the evictee.

[The time of cohabitation]

The solution that the Chinese state has given to the problem of assembling together (the problem of the public realm and public space) a set of disorderly voices, contradictory interests and virulent claims and of accommodating so many dissenting parties, has been to get rid of most of them. With the arrival of the society of control, the Chinese seems to be willing to change time and shift from the time of Time (the time of substitution) to the time of Simultaneity, that is, to space as a series of simultaneities, or the time of cohabitation.

[The time-space of the Special Economic Zone: the time of substitution]

The blank condition (the tabula rasa) of the special economic zone represents the cleansing march of progress that renders passé the contradictory interests of people, the set of disorderly voices, contradictory interests and virulent claims.

[to rearchitect ]

verb. To make fundamental changes to the design or structure of something.


a. Urban expansion that possesses the characteristics of sprawl in a transitory manner.
b. Self-contradicting form of sprawl that features a mixture of dense, dispersed, planned and irregular suburbanization. The result of accelerated construction.

[transnational suburb]

n. A suburb made up mostly of immigrants who maintain strong ties to their home countries.!!!!

[tunnel advertising]

n. An advertisement consisting of a series of illuminated screens in a subway tunnel, each projecting one image from a sequence to create an animation effect as the train goes by.


the push towards larger blocks, taller buildings and more luxury for a better market, often maintaining the same density as smaller-scaled typologies.

[Update strategy]

{[can the term reveal something of the content of the strategy?]}
The policy of cities to keep renewing themselves, continuously updating their urban structure.

[urban hierarchy]

from geographic center moving radially out in distance—
a. [(city) center]: A heavily populated city at the core of a large metropolitan area
- in the case of Beijing, from the center to Fourth Ring Road.
The term often refers to the CBD or downtown in that both serve the same purpose for the city. City centre differs from downtown in that downtown can be geographically located anywhere in a city, while city centre is located near the geographic heart of the city. In Beijing the CBD should be distinguished from the center as it is predomiantly residential.
b. [periphery]: transition zone between center and suburb; in the case of Beijing, a fluctuating area relatively between the Fourth and Fifth Ring Roads.
c. [suburb]: suburbia.
1. The term suburbia is frequently used to encapsulate the concept of suburbs as oddly picturesque slices of tract-home nuclear family life that harbour forces destructive of natural human impulses towards true community and concerns of communal welfare.
d. [sub-satellite]: planned development possessing the size of a satellite but lacking the distance, governance and / or infrastructural connection to the city core.
e. [satellite]: smaller municipalities that are adjacent to a major city which is the core of a metropolitan area, possessing their own municipal governments distinct from that of the core metropolis (wikipedia).
f. [outskirts]: moderately or non-urbanized area within the field of influence of urban gravity .

[urban lumberjack]

noun. A logger who works in an urban environment collecting and selling wood retrieved from demolished buildings.


a. often Utopian Of, relating to, describing or having the characteristics of a Utopia: a Utopian island; Utopian novels.
1. Excellent or ideal but impracticable; visionary: a utopian scheme for equalizing wealth.
2. Proposing impracticably ideal schemes.

[Virtual City]

City that has effectively employed technology to increase its space and livability. / City with an entirely altered identity as a result of mass advertisement and media technology.

[Work-unit compounds]

From its appearance, the work-unit compound is a diagram of control that conforms to the definition of a Panopticon –like structure

[well-off society]

Chinese: [xiao kang]

from the Chinese meaning “small well-being”, or ‘moderately well-off’; first mentioned as a goal of the Chinese state in 2002, xiao kang incorporates the ability to buy into the Chinese Dream, where everyone will achieve a moderately rich status, with a car and a modern house.

[yuppie slum]

noun. 1. An upscale neighborhood populated mostly with young professionals and managers. 2. A neighborhood with older and slightly run-down houses that young professionals purchase and renovate.


Zhejiang, although only a tiny province by Chinese standards, is a magnet to migrants. Migrant farm women who work hard in Zhejiang sock factories, are those who made the men’s dress socks that sell in department stores in the USA and Europe. Nine of every one hundred of China’s wandering workers make their way here.

new terms

CHANG - ( Chang's entire article needs to be coined )


The Baojia is essentially a type of household administration and population registration system first used in the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD). It grouped households into a scaled pyramidal network, organized to maintain local control and mutual surveillance. During the Ming dynasty the structure was ten households at the lowest level, 100 households at the intermediate level, and 1,000 households at the tertiary level. Surveillance of society was achieved by a system of periodic reports on good and bad household behavior; awards were given for praise-worthy deeds, while crimes resulted in hanging a placard in from of the offender’s house. The population enumeration function of the system worked by requiring families to post a “door plate” with data on household members by name, age and particular characteristics, such as disabilities, or “out-standing contributions to the nation”. (Dutton, M., 1998. Street life in China, Cambridge University Press)


Central Business District.


Village Level Administration

Dadui, or village level administration is the lowest rural level in the administrative hierarchy (jicen danwei) of China. In pre-reform era it is a collectivized unit of agricultural production hence called dadui or shenchan dadui, literal meaning big production team. The dadui had tremendous local decision making power. In the post-reform era most of the dadui simply became Village Level Administration, as collectivesed farming became phased out and replaces with household responsibility system (occasional collectivised dadui still remain). Though the term is rarely officially used nowadays many anachronistically call themselves dadui. In post-reform China many have taken on the role of organising enterprises where resources are pooled and collective investments made. They are known as TVEs or Township Village Enterprises and their success have contributed a great deal to China’s economic rise.


The Danwei is the basic socioeconomic unit of the city, they are essentially State owned enterprises established by the State using State revenue and hence returned their economic profit to the State. They were by no means independent economic bodies since local and national government determine their role and for that reason their interest is kept in line with the state. They serve to transform places of work into places where people lived, leisured, got educated and raised their family, a community centred around the workplace.


Literally translates to big yard. It is a name used to refer to danweis’ sectioned land for its own exclusive use.

[Eminent Domain]

[Entrepreneurial State]


In 1994 the State Council passed ‘Basic Farmland Protection Regulations’. These regulations prohibited basic farmland conversion to non-agricultural activities and mandated counties and townships to designate the basic farmland protection districts in accordance with provincial farmland preservation plans. (Ding, C., 2001. Land policy reform in China: assessment and prospects)

[Flash Motorisation]

[Floating Population]

[Floating Village]

[Formal Economy]

Economic development that is driven by or at least acknowledged by an official institution. For example development zones, official real estate development and planned satellite towns etc.

[Grey Economy]

The Grey Economy refers to the flow of goods through distribution channels other than those authorized or intended by the manufacturer or producer. They are not illegal. Simply the distributor doesn’t have a formal relationship with the producer of the goods distributed. (Wikipedia)

[Household Responsibility System]

[Hukou System]

The hukou is a urban local residency license or permit usually based on households and as such are also called household registration. It allowed hukou holders to access social welfare that was geographically confined and to access local public goods (including schools), food and other amenities like cheap public housing, free health care, better education and food products at subsidized prices. In pre-reform era without a city hukou effectively means that you are denied access most public amenity, even finding a job was impossible. It was introduced to maintain a dichotomous urban-rural structure with very limited labour mobility. In the post-reform era with the rise of private enterprise hukou is becoming less significant though still play a major role in most peoples lives.


See Grey Economy
Streets are divided into three sub categories in China, hutongs being the narrowest followed by xiang and finally jie being the broadest. Hutongs are essentially narrow pedestrian throughways or alleys formed by alignment of courtyard neighbourhoods or Siheyuans.
Informal Economy

[Jedao banshichu]

Literally translates to street or neighbourhood office. They perform the functions of public security, schools and childcare, health and family planning, maintenance of registered hukou* records, conflict mediation, environmental quality, and social activities as well as implementation of divers government campaigns. (Whyte, M. K. and Parish, W. L., 1984. Urban life in Contemporary China, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.)

[Jicen Danwei]

Grassroot Work Unit

Literally grass-roots work unit, they form the lowest of the administrative hierarchy, the village level administration is the rural Jicen Danwei while in the city it can be anything from a school to a small factory, since in the pre-reform era everything was state owned all work places where Danweis. Though at the lower end of the hierarchy they had surprising amount of autonomy compared to other socialist countries at the time.

[Jumen weiyuanhu]

Literally meaning residents’ Committee. They serve to integrate non-waged members of society, namely housewives, children, students and the retired, into the state system, transmitting state policy to the local level (Cartier, C., 2005. ‘City-space, Scale Relations and China’s Spatial Administrative Hierarchy’, Restructuring the Chinese City, Routeledge)

[Land Tenure System]

Land tenure system in socialist China where all urban land is State owned meant land was allocated free of charge to work units call danweis under the state.

[Land-Use Fee]

Land-use fees were first introduced in 1979. China started to impose land-use fees on foreign enterprises and joint ventures. The annual rates of land-use fees were 1–20RMB/m2. The State passed the ‘‘Provisional Act of Land-Us Taxation on State Owned Urban Land’’ in 1989. According to the law, all danwei and individuals were obliged to pay land-use taxes if they used land in cities, towns, and industrial and mining districts. The rate of land-use taxes depended on city size. In large cities like Beijing the charge would be between (with population over one million people) 0.50-10.00 RMB. (Ding, C., 2001. Land policy reform in China: assessment and prospects)

[Land-Use Taxation]

In 1989 the state passed the “Provisional Act of Land-Use Taxation on State Owned Urban Land”. According to the law, all work units (danweis) and individuals were obliged to pay land-use taxes if they used land in cities, towns, and industrial and mining districts. The rate of land-use taxes depended on city size and profitability:

- large cities (over 1,000,000) charge 0.50-10.00 RMB/m2
- medium cities (500,000-1,000,000) charge 0.40-8.00 RMB/m2
- small cities (200,000-500,000) charge 0.30-6.00 RMB/m2
- towns, industrial and mining districts (less than 200,000) charge 0.20-4.00 RMB/m2

- if the net profits are less than 50% of total costs, the tax rate is 30% or net profit;
- if the net profits are between 50-100%, the tax rate is 40%;
- if the net profits are in the range of 100-200%, the tax rate is 50%
- if the net profts exceeds 200%, the tax rate is 60%

[Land Value Increment Tax]

In 1993, the State passed the ‘‘Provisional Act of Land Value Increment Tax on State-Owned Land’’. It specified that parties or individuals that transfer land-use rights be taxpayers. The Act required that taxpayers should pay a land value increment tax if they gained a net profit through land-use rights transfer and the net profits exceeded more than 20 percent of total costs (including land improvement costs, construction costs, management fees, transaction fees and taxes). (Ding, C., 2001. Land policy reform in China: assessment and prospects)

[Monocentric City]

Cities with one clearly defined spatial, political social or financial core. Usually where employment is focused and land prices and density all highest


See Monocentric City


Municipality in China refer to the four designated metropolitan cities including Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Chongqin that enjoy the same political power as the provinces which are the second tier of the administrative hierarchy after the central government.

[Polycentric City]

A city where the population is distributed almost evenly amongst several political, social or financial centres.

[Regime of Accumulation]

Processes of capital accumulation do not occur outside of a social regime of accumulation. In other words, a specific political and socio-economic environment is required that enables sustained investment and economic growth. This environment is created partly by state policy, but partly by also by technological innovations, changes in popular culture, commercial developments, the media, and so on. An example of such a regime often cited here is that of Fordism, named after the enterprise of Henry Ford. As the pattern of accumulation changes, the regime of accumulation also changes.

Similar ideas also surface in institutional economics. The main insight here is that market trade cannot flourish without regulation by a legal system plus the enforcement of basic moral conduct and private property by the state. But the regime of accumulation responds to the total experience of living in capitalist society, not just market trade. (Wikipedia)


Ringing describes the way Beijing’s urban expansion has been in phases and each marked by a corresponding Ring Road. For example Historic Beijing is within the Second Ring Road while Maoist Era expansion was mainly outside of the Second Ring Road. Reform brought Urban Expansion to outside of Third Ring Road, and so on and so forth.


Rural Urban Syndicate or Chenxiang Jehebu

Essentially the RUS is a hybrid form of SUV. As the city rapidly expands the increasing proximity between SUVs and new urban developments creates a new kind of spatial and socioeconomic dynamism, the Rural Urban Syndicate. Whereby SUVs and new urban developments create coexistence and interdependence, a form of Mutualism. This facilitates a blossoming informal economy (Grey Economy) geared towards the influx of construction workers building the adjacent projects and the subsequent services industry like cheap restaurants and motor caddies after the adjacent projects are complete. However, the term is usually used in a negative context, as crime and prostitution are often associated with the onset of RUS.


Sheng is Chinese for a province.


A unique type of quadrangle courtyard found in China. A type of yard enclosed by four buildings it formed the basis of all ancient Chinese cities.


Semi-Urbanized Villages

Semi-Urbanized Villages are villages on the urban periphery of cities where the lifestyles of the inhabitants are increasingly urban while the setting still remains rural as not enough basic urban infrastructures are in place, for example communal access to water. Often inhabitants comprise of rural immigrants looking for opportunities in the city but rather live and travel to avoid the higher rent prices inside the city. As a result local peasants built often illegally cheap housing to accommodate the influx of migrant population abstaining from less profitable agriculture and became landlords. The physical size of the village tends to remain the same while its density explodes within a short period of time. In many instances their construction activity is organised by their Village administration who pooled money and standardised construction and contracts. (F. Frederic Deng and Youqin Huang first used the term in their paper, Uneven Land Reform and Urban Sprawl In China: the Case of Beijing. 2004)


Literally, spreading of the pancake. A popular euphemism for the Beijing locals to describe the urban shape of Beijing, suggesting it is porous and low in density while very wide growing outwards.


Township or Village Enterprise

TVEs are essentially rural entrepreneurial ventures. They have been highly successful type of business ventures in the 1980s and 90s following economic reform of 1978. Contrary to popular imagination many of them are not private as numerous ventures involve some form of the local administration and their ability pool collective resources together. Usually small in scale and involve existing population of the local village their flexibility and adaptability suited the rapid changing global consumer trends and account for a large share of China’s economic ‘miracle’. This phenomenon of state mobilised local enterprise is relatively unique to China.



Roughly equivalent to the county it is the lowest territorial administrative hierarchy in ancient China and have been so since the Qin Dynasty (265-420 AD). In contemporary China they are on the same administrative hierarchy as cities.

[Zone Fever]

[Public Amenities]

Use of natural and man-made goods shared with others or beneficial for all (or most) members of a given
community., e.g. air, water, energy.

[Greenhouse gas emission]

Defines the equivalent number of kilograms of greenhouse gasses resulting from the production and installation of one unit of this material. (Ecotect)


Urban agglomerations with current or projected populations of 10 million or more by the year 20 00.


A hybrid between the tourist oriented classic hutong courtyard house lacking the traditional features suffering inadequate infrastructure, bad quality construction materials.


Two or more residential units per floor extruded multiple times usually around a pear of elevators and technical supply having differing plan design but lack of any three-dimensionality, climatic adaptations nor energy-saving design features


Behind the process of regionalisation lies the concept of regionalism. This can be seen as the normative aspects, or values, that underly regionalisation e.g. the (contested) European identity. Wikipedia

[K or U-Value]

A measure of air-to-air heat transmission (loss or gain) due to thermal conductance and the difference in indoor and outdoor temperatures. As the U-Value decreases, so does the amount of heat that is transferred through the glazing material. The lower the U-Value, the more restrictive the fenestration product is to heat transfer (Reciprocal of the R-Value). (


A process in which a developing country undergoes in the attempt to run a proper dialog with its western partners.


A process of adopting the American way of life, the American dream, the American social values, as well as corporate system

[Green Edge]

The price of the constructing a green building is margin in comparison with the main investment.

[Heat Islands or Canyons]

A phenomena of heat locked between the built urban substances.

[Thermal Comfort]

A method uses the upper and lower comfort band temperatures set for each zone. If the internal zone temperature is above the upper value or below the lower value, it is deemed uncomfortable. As standard is considered 21-24°C. People can be quite comfortable at internal temperatures in excess of 30°C with the right clothing, mean radiant temperatures and air movement. In case of Beijing a conservative range of 18-26 in a building in a continental monsoon climate of Beijing.

[green edge]

A zone defined by the combined surface of a citiy's (planned) built-up areas and (planned) footprint of high-end mass-transit.
This zone aims to unit the qualities of well-serviced down-town areas (or fast access to them) and lush spacious residential areas generally sought after in the suburb.

[high-end mass-transit]

Transit systems that can process .. XXXXXX

[footprint of mass-transit]

The surface defined by the total of each accessibility radius around the stations of a mass-transit system - generally of pedestrians and bikes.

[accessibility radius]

The radius that describes the distance you can cover in a given time to the center of the circle.

[Shapeless city]



mono, trans, infra, Speed sprawl

refer to each other and define dash...


[dormitory extrusion]

(see kathy)

[floating village ]

[splatter pattern]


[pull factor]

[black hole]




[stepping stones]


[peri-centric city]



Crude urban texture resulting from the simultaneous but uneven stretching and enlarging of public space, architecture and infrastructure; gives rise to a pedestrian-hostile cityscape.

[reason d'etre]

[dream scenario]

[doom scenario]


[critical mass]

[doughnut model]










Policy Sprawl
1. Policy Sprawl describes the phenomenon that China’s planning and building policies and laws most often result in the opposite of their intended affect and contribute to sprawl.
2. The accumulation of unclear, often contradicting policies - This makes it both difficult to follow plan ning laws for those who try and easy to avoid them for more powerful developers.

People’s Urbanity of China (PUC)
Part of China (1/3rd of total area) where 96% of the population, ecoomic activities, migration flows and arable land are concentrated. China’s urban and semi-urban region.

a form of migration by which the rural inhabitant moves into an urban settlement, is assimilated, and becomes an urbanite.

a form of migration by which the rural inhabitant moves into an urban settlement but is not assimilated. The migrants stays in the city temporarily and does not become part of the urban economy; the temporary or floating migrant is much more likely to be sending money back to a permanent home still in the village than spending it in the city.

a form of urban expansion which does not need to justify itself against population movements or the relationship between rural and urban economies. It is simply people moving into bigger apartments, shared with fewer people and increased space for service and infrastructure bringing about a massive reduction in people per m2 of built area. Without anything having to change in terms of population numbers, the city is building itself dramtically upwards and outwards.

Doorstep urbanization
a form of urban expansion. A process of economic and mental migration, but a physical stasis. Villagers are becoming urban in the organisation of their lives and built environment without actually leaving their homes.

the low level low quality version of doorstep urbanization, where with limited money and minimal organised planning or architecture, an urbanised landscape is creating itself

Arable PUC
Part of PUC that is suitable for agriculture (38 % of PUC’s total area). Every year on average 5000 skm2 of arable PUC is lost as a result of urbanization, over intensive farming and reforestation programs

members of the floating population

Semi-urbanized village
rural villages on the urban fringe that physically still look like rural villages and lack urban infrastructure and services, but their residents work in cities and have an urban lifestyle. Expansion of the population (especially migrant workers and temporary urban residents) is not accompanied by development but rather by crowding of peasant houses and illegal construction. People from the same province tend to live together in the same enclave (for example Zhejiangcun: village of the people from Zhejiang in Beijing) Also called ‘peasant enclaves’, ‘ethnic enclaves’, or ‘migrant villages’. (Uneven land reform and sprawl in China: the case of Beijing, F.F. Deng, Y. Huang / Progress in planning 61 (2004) 211-236)

Zone fever
in the early 1990s their was an explosive boom of development zones in Chinese cities; there were 2700 development zones at the end of 1992 compared to only 117 at the end of 1991. They continue to pop up whenever there is some government initiative for economic development. In contrast to local government enthusiasm, a large portion of the land inside the development zones remains vacant after they are graded and urban infrastucture has been built. In the mid-1990s the central government began to clean up the mess; 1200 zones were cancelled and 2 million mu of vacant land were returned to agricultural use. (Uneven land reform and sprawl in China: the case of Beijing, F.F. Deng, Y. Huang / Progress in planning 61 (2004) 211-236)

Chinese density

Splatter pattern

Posted by neville mars / 16.4 years ago / 50628 hits